Parties in the Paris Agreement

The Paris Agreement is a global agreement that was signed in 2015 by the members of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). It aims to tackle climate change by limiting global warming to less than 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels while pursuing efforts to limit it even further to 1.5 degrees Celsius. The agreement sets out various responsibilities for different parties, including countries, regions, and international organizations, to contribute towards achieving this goal. In this article, we will discuss the different parties in the Paris Agreement and their responsibilities.


The Paris Agreement requires each country to submit and communicate their national climate plans, referred to as nationally determined contributions (NDCs), indicating their targets for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The NDCs must be transparent and demonstrate progress over time, and countries must regularly update and enhance their plans every few years.

Developed countries:

Developed countries within the Paris Agreement have more responsibility to provide financial and technological support to developing countries. They are expected to provide financial resources to help developing countries reduce their emissions and adapt to the impacts of climate change.

Developing countries:

Developing countries are encouraged to develop and implement their climate plans, in line with their respective national circumstances and capabilities. They are also provided with support in the form of finance, technology transfer, and capacity building.

Civil Society:

The Paris Agreement includes provisions for civil society engagement. Non-state actors, including businesses, communities, and non-governmental organizations, are encouraged to take action and report on their efforts.

International Organizations:

The Paris Agreement recognizes the role of international organizations in supporting the implementation of the Agreement. The United Nations and its bodies, along with other international organizations, are expected to provide guidance and technical support to countries to help them implement their climate plans.


The Paris Agreement is a significant milestone in the global effort to address climate change, and the different parties within the agreement have crucial roles to play. Countries, whether developed or developing, must submit their NDCs and work towards reducing emissions in line with their respective capabilities. Developed countries must support developing countries in reducing emissions and adapting to the impacts of climate change. Non-state actors and international organizations are also expected to contribute to the global effort. By working together, the different parties can help achieve the goal of limiting global warming to less than 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels.